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Comparing olive oil and C4-dietary oil, a prodrug for the GPR119 agonist, 2-oleoyl glycerol, less energy intake of the latter is needed to stimulate incretin hormone secretion in overweight subjects with type 2 diabetes.

Comparing olive oil and C4-dietary oil, a prodrug for the GPR119 agonist, 2-oleoyl glycerol, less energy intake of the latter is needed to stimulate incretin hormone secretion in overweight subjects with type 2 diabetes.
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Mandøe MJ, Hansen KB, Windeløv JA, Knop FK, Rehfeld JF, Rosenkilde MM, Holst JJ, Hansen HS,


Mandøe MJ, Hansen KB, Windeløv JA, Knop FK, Rehfeld JF, Rosenkilde MM, Holst JJ, Hansen HS, (click to view)

Mandøe MJ, Hansen KB, Windeløv JA, Knop FK, Rehfeld JF, Rosenkilde MM, Holst JJ, Hansen HS,

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Nutrition & diabetes 2018 01 128(1) 2 doi 10.1038/s41387-017-0011-z
Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE
After digestion, dietary triacylglycerol stimulates incretin release in humans, mainly through generation of 2-monoacylglycerol, an agonist for the intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). Enhanced incretin release may have beneficial metabolic effects. However, dietary fat may promote weight gain and should therefore be restricted in obesity. We designed C4-dietary oil (1,3-di-butyryl-2-oleoyl glycerol) as a 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)-generating fat type, which would stimulate incretin release to the same extent while providing less calories than equimolar amounts of common triglycerides, e.g., olive oil.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS
We studied the effect over 180 min of (a) 19 g olive oil plus 200 g carrot, (b) 10.7 g C4 dietary oil plus 200 g carrot and (c) 200 g carrot, respectively, on plasma responses of gut and pancreatic hormones in 13 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Theoretically, both oil meals result in formation of 7.7 g 2-OG during digestion.

RESULTS
Both olive oil and C4-dietary oil resulted in greater postprandial (P ≤ 0.01) glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) responses (incremental area under curve (iAUC)): iAUCGLP-1: 645 ± 194 and 702 ± 97 pM × min; iAUCGIP: 4,338 ± 764 and 2,894 ± 601 pM × min) compared to the carrot meal (iAUCGLP-1: 7 ± 103 pM × min; iAUCGIP: 266 ± 234 pM × min). iAUC for GLP-1 and GIP were similar for C4-dietary oil and olive oil, although olive oil resulted in a higher peak value for GIP than C4-dietary oil.

CONCLUSION
C4-dietary oil enhanced secretion of GLP-1 and GIP to almost the same extent as olive oil, in spite of liberation of both 2-OG and oleic acid, which also may stimulate incretin secretion, from olive oil. Thus, C4-dietary oil is more effective as incretin releaser than olive oil per unit of energy and may be useful for dietary intervention.

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