To compare the hemostatic effect and safety in primary unilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) receiving nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium, rivaroxaban, or apixaban after anti-fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid (TXA) and explore the best anticoagulant.
A retrospective analysis was conducted on 184 patients who underwent the primary unilateral THA between January 2014 and December 2018, administrated 15 mg/kg TXA before surgery and received nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium, rivaroxaban, or apixaban. The patients were divided into four groups based on the different anticoagulants: 46 patients received nadroparin calcium; 45 patients received enoxaparin sodium; 47 patients received rivaroxaban; the other 46 patients received apixaban. There was no significant difference in age, gender, body mass, body mass index, the types of hip joint diseases, complications, anesthesia mode, operation time, and preoperative laboratory indexes (hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, prothrombin time, activated partial prothrombin time, blood volume) ( >0.05). Perioperative blood data (total blood loss, hidden blood loss, dominant blood loss, postoperative drainage volume, maximum loss of hemoglobin, and blood transfusion rate) and complications (incision, bleeding, and thrombosis) were recorded and compared between groups.
There was no significant difference in total blood loss, hidden blood loss, dominant blood loss, postoperative drainage volume, maximum loss of hemoglobin, and blood transfusion rate between groups ( >0.05). The comparison of postoperative complications showed that 1 case (2.1%) of redness and swelling of incision occurred in the rivaroxaban group, and 1 case (2.2%) of the other 3 groups each had poor incision healing. No incision infection, fat liquefaction, or other incision complications occurred in the 4 groups. There was no significant difference in incision complication between groups ( >0.05). There were 2 cases (4.3%) bleeding events (1 case of right inguinal hematoma and 1 case of subcutaneous ecchymosis in front of left leg) in the nadroparin calcium group, while no bleeding event occurred in the other 3 groups, which had no significant difference in bleeding complication between groups ( =5.612, =0.132). There was 1 case (2.2%) of intermuscular vein thrombosis of the lower extremity in the nadroparin calcium group and no case in the other 3 groups, which had no significant difference between groups ( =2.789, =0.425). Neither deep venous thrombosis nor pulmonary embolism occurred in any group.
No significant difference in the hemostatic effect and incidences of complications for patients underwent primary unilateral THA receiving nadroparin calcium, enoxaparin sodium, rivaroxaban, or apixaban after anti-fibrinolysis with TXA. One of the four anticoagulants can be selected to prevent thrombosis after anti-fibrinolysis with TXA, which has certain safety.

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