Prevalence rates for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in individuals with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) and Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) are unknown. The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms of RLS and self-assessed risks of OSA in individuals with NMOSD and CIS, to compare these prevalence rates with those of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to associate RLS and OSA with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, paresthesia, and medication.
A total of 495 individuals (mean age = 34.92 years, 84.9% females) were assessed. Of these, 24 had NMOSD, 112 had CIS and 359 had MS. Trained neurologists ascertained individuals’ neurological diagnoses, assessed their EDSS scores, and conducted a clinical interview to assess RLS. Additionally, participants completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, risks of snoring and OSA, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, paresthesia and medication.
Prevalence rates of RLS were 45.8% in NMOSD, 41.1% in CIS, and 28.7% in MS. Prevalence rates of self-assessed risks of OSA were 8.3% in NMOSD, 7.7% in CIS, and 7.8% in MS; these rates were not significantly different. Across the entire sample and within the diagnostic groups, RLS and OSA scores were unrelated to EDSS, daytime sleepiness, fatigue or medication.
Individuals with NMOSD, CIS and MS have high prevalence rates for RLS and self-assessed risks of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which are unrelated to EDSS, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, paresthesia, or medication. Sleep issues should be monitored during routine check-ups for individuals with NMOSD and CIS.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.