Whether revascularization should be performed as multivessel intervention at the time of index procedure (MV-index), staged procedure (MV-staged), or culprit only intervention (COI) in patients with multivessel disease (MVD) presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the optimal revascularization strategy in this patient population.
PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases were systematically searched to identify all relevant studies. The outcomes assessed were major cardiac adverse events (MACE), all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization. A Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) with credible interval (CrI).
Thirteen studies with 8,066 patients were included in the analysis. There was a decreased risk of MACE (MV-index vs. COI: OR, 0.35; 95% CrI, 0.23-0.55; MV-staged vs COI: OR, 0.52; 95% CrI, 0.31-0.81) and revascularization (MV-index vs. COI: OR, 0.27; 95% CrI, 0.15-0.49; MV-staged vs. COI: OR, 0.38; 95% CrI, 0.19-0.70) with MV-index intervention and MV-staged intervention compared with COI. However, MV-index intervention and not MV-staged intervention was associated with a decreased risk of MI (MV-index vs. COI: OR, 0.35; 95% CrI, 0.12-0.93; MV-staged vs. COI: OR, 0.65; 95% CrI, 0.24-1.59) compared with COI.
Our analysis suggests that multivessel intervention either at index procedure or as staged intervention may be more efficacious compared to COI in patients with MVD presenting with ACS.

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