Calmodulin mutations are associated with arrhythmia syndromes in humans. Exome sequencing previously identified a de novo mutation in CALM1 resulting in a p.N98S substitution in a patient with sinus bradycardia and stress-induced bidirectional ventricular ectopy. The objectives of the present study were to determine if mice carrying the N98S mutation knocked into Calm1 replicate the human arrhythmia phenotype and to examine arrhythmia mechanisms. Ventricular de- and repolarization was assessed in isolated hearts using optical voltage mapping. Action potentials and whole-cell currents and [Ca2+]i, as well, were measured in single ventricular myocytes using the patch-clamp technique and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The microelectrode technique was used for in situ membrane voltage monitoring of ventricular conduction fibers. Two biologically independent knock-in mouse lines heterozygous for the Calm1N98S allele were generated. Calm1N98S/+ mice of either sex and line exhibited sinus bradycardia, QTc interval prolongation, and catecholaminergic bidirectional ventricular tachycardia. Male mutant mice also showed QRS widening. Pharmacological blockade and activation of β-adrenergic receptors rescued and exacerbated, respectively, the long-QT phenotype of Calm1N98S/+ mice. Optical and electric assessment of membrane potential in isolated hearts and single left ventricular myocytes, respectively, revealed β-adrenergically induced delay of repolarization.


Reference link-