Component-resolved diagnostics examines IgE-mediated sensitizations at the molecular level using specified allergen compounds. In this paper, the researchers explore the benefits and limits of component-resolved diagnostics in the field of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). Component resolution in HVA has progressed from single molecules to allergy panels. The detection of specific immunoglobulin E to marker and cross-reactive venom allergens has been reported to aid in the differentiation of primary sensitization and cross-reactivity, providing a better rationale for prescribing venom immunotherapy (VIT). Characterization of IgE reactivity to a diverse panel of venom allergens has enabled the discovery of distinct sensitization profiles in honeybee venom allergy, which were linked with higher risks of side effects or treatment failure of VIT. Component resolution, on the other hand, has thus far failed to give effective markers for differentiating sensitizations to venoms of distinct Vespidae members.

Component-resolved diagnostics aid in understanding the complexities of sensitization and cross-reactivities in HVA. Furthermore, the improved resolution and accuracy may enable for the discovery of biomarkers that may be utilized for risk classification in VIT. Knowledge of the molecular makeup of various therapeutic preparations may allow for the selection of optimal VIT preparations based on individual sensitization profiles, which is compatible with the aims of personalized medicine.