Post-laser in situ keratomileusis (post-LASIK) ectasia (PLE) is one of the most serious complications after refractive surgery, mainly manifested as progressive thinning and trembling thinning of the cornea, accompanied by increased myopia and astigmatism. The mechanisms behind mainly include genetic risk factors and external environmental factors such as eye rubbing and cornea surgery. In order to achieve the goal of reducing the incidence of ectasia, preoperative screening strategies need to be continuously improved, through the collection and assessment of genetic and environmental risk factors. Although previous preoperative screening methods did not have a uniform standard, the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) can help us process a large amount of information and make rational use of the data. By using high-fidelity finite element modelling, differences in preoperative and postoperative strain distributions can be observed, which can predict the risk of postoperative ectasia. In this review, we describe the incidence, aetiology, prevention and treatment of PLE for the purpose of comprehensive management. In terms of treatment, corneal collagen cross-linking has been widely used to treat progressive keratoconus and other ectasia disease, either as a preventive measure during surgery or as a therapeutic modality after surgery to prevent progression of corneal dilation. Although the standard Dresden protocol has been identified as the gold standard treatment for corneal dilatation, a series of refinements, investigations and long-term studies have been conducted in recent years. Thus, understanding the factors involved in delaying the onset and slowing progression of cornea ectasia will be key to reducing the incidence worldwide.
© 2023 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.