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Congenital cytomegalovirus, parvovirus and enterovirus infection in Mozambican newborns at birth: A cross-sectional survey.

Congenital cytomegalovirus, parvovirus and enterovirus infection in Mozambican newborns at birth: A cross-sectional survey.
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Madrid L, Varo R, Maculuve S, Nhampossa T, Muñoz-Almagro C, Calderón EJ, Esteva C, Carrilho C, Ismail M, Vieites B, Friaza V, Lozano-Dominguez MDC, Menéndez C, Bassat Q,


Madrid L, Varo R, Maculuve S, Nhampossa T, Muñoz-Almagro C, Calderón EJ, Esteva C, Carrilho C, Ismail M, Vieites B, Friaza V, Lozano-Dominguez MDC, Menéndez C, Bassat Q, (click to view)

Madrid L, Varo R, Maculuve S, Nhampossa T, Muñoz-Almagro C, Calderón EJ, Esteva C, Carrilho C, Ismail M, Vieites B, Friaza V, Lozano-Dominguez MDC, Menéndez C, Bassat Q,

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PloS one 2018 03 1413(3) e0194186 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0194186

Abstract
BACKGROUND
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity.

METHODS
A cross sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers attending Manhiça District Hospital upon delivery. Information on maternal risk factors was ascertained. Dried umbilical cord (DUC) samples were collected in filter paper for CMV, B19V and EV detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) to test for CMV by RT-PCR. Maternal blood samples and placental biopsy samples were also obtained to investigate CMV maternal serology, HIV status and immunopathology.

RESULTS
From September 2014 to January 2015, 118 mothers/newborn pairs were recruited. Prevalence of maternal HIV infection was 31.4% (37/118). CMV RT-PCR was positive in 3/115 (2.6%) of DUC samples and in 3/96 (6.3%) of NPA samples obtained from neonates. The concordance of the RT-PCR assay through DUC with their correspondent NPA sample was moderate (Kappa = 0.42 and p<0.001. No differences on cCMV prevalence were found among HIV-exposed and unexposed. All (100%) mothers were seropositive for CMV IgG. RT-PCR of EV and B19V in DUC were both negative in all screened cases. No histological specific findings were found in placental tissues. No risk factors associated to vertical transmission of these viral infections were found. CONCLUSIONS
This study indicates the significant occurrence of vertical transmission of CMV in southern Mozambique. Larger studies are needed to evaluate the true burden, clinical relevance and consequences of congenital infections with such pathogens in resource-constrained settings.

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