In this study we see that how a Needle cannulation of hemodialysis access is the soft underbelly of hemodialysis access care that has remained unchanged for a long time. Cannulation error results in complications such as infiltration, hematoma, subsequent revision procedures, and potential loss of hard-earned access. The “best” cannulation method is contingent upon access type and characteristics along with local expertise. The rope ladder technique of cannulation, characterized by successive rotation of puncture sites with each hemodialysis session, permits sufficient time for healing of prior cannulation sites, and reduction in complications such as bleeding, infection, and aneurysm development. A steeper needle angle, higher blood flow rates, and deep needle tip can lead to wall stress on the posterior wall and up to 10 cm from the needle cannulation site. Plastic cannulas provide a viable alternative to metallic needles; they have lower complications and a favorable cost-benefit ratio. There is lack of evidence to support an optimal arterial needle direction configuration. Needle injury may promote intimal thickening, but its effect on access outcomes is currently unknown.


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