The severe stage of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is characterized by the growth of new blood vessels which is called Neovascularization (NV). The abnormally grown blood vessels on the disc are breakable in nature thus the patient is at high risk of sudden blindness. Therefore, the significance of early and accurate detection of Neovascularization on Disc (NVD) should not be neglected. This paper presents an automatic detection of the optic disc using a Controlled Differential Evolution (CDE) algorithm. Further, the Region of Interest (ROI) is created automatically by extending the extreme boundaries of the optic disc by 100 pixels to ensure the presence of NV around the optic disc also. From the ROI so created, blood vessels are segmented using multi-scale Gabor filtering and subsequently, both the morphological and textural features are extracted. Simultaneously, statistical features are directly extracted from the earlier created ROI. Finally, the fundus image is classified by a Support Vector Machine (SVM) using the extracted features from all three feature sets. From each individual image, 16 features are extracted and the feature dimension is reduced to 13 using a sequential backward feature (SBF) selection algorithm. The optimal features are obtained from a total of 205 fundus images, which consists of 99 NVD positive and 106 NVD negative images. This paper attains an average accuracy of 98.75%, the specificity of 100%, the sensitivity of 97.8%, and area under the curve (AUC) as 100% when tested over image selected randomly.

References

PubMed