PloS one 2017 01 0512(1) e0169359 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0169359
COPD is a frequent and significant cause of respiratory morbidity in HIV-infected patients despite the control of HIV. We aimed to analyze the factors correlated with COPD in this population to evaluate the existence of specific indicators of vulnerability in this population.
METHODS AND FINDINGS
623 HIV-infected outpatients were enrolled during one year. This population was characterised by a dedicated questionnaire and electronic patient records. COPD screening was performed according to recommended spirometric criteria. The prevalence of COPD was 9.0%. Age and smoking were independently correlated with COPD (OR, 1.61 per 10 years increase, P = 0.007; OR, 1.28 per 10 pack-year increase, P = 0.003, respectively). Body mass index (BMI) and CD4 cell-count were independently and negatively correlated with COPD (OR, 0.78, P < 0.001; 0R, 0.77 per 100 cell/mm3 increase, P < 0.001, respectively). Among COPD patients, 77% did not know their diagnosis. Five COPD-patients never smoked and 44.2% did not have any respiratory symptoms and so were not eligible to perform a spirometry according to the guidelines. CONCLUSIONS
In addition to known risk factors, immune defect through CD4 cell count was independently and strongly correlated with COPD. COPD is largely underdiagnosed and thus unmanaged. However, early management and urgent smoking cessation are essential to improve prognosis. Clinicians’ awareness on the particular vulnerability for COPD in HIV-infected patients is crucial. Moreover, indications to perform conventional spirometry to diagnose COPD may include more parameters than tobacco-smoking and respiratory complaints with a particular concern toward patients with a profound CD4 cell count defect.