Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a severe bilateral allergic inflammatory ocular surface condition. The illness is usually restricted to the tarsal conjunctiva and the limbus. However, in more severe situations, the cornea may be implicated, potentially resulting in sight-threatening problems. The early detection of these consequences is critical in the treatment of VKC, which is one of the most severe ocular allergy disorders. As a result of a series of reciprocal interactions between the conjunctiva and the cornea, a vicious cycle of inflammation occurs, resulting in damage to the corneal epithelium and stoma, as well as the formation of shield ulcers and plaques, infectious keratitis, keratoconus, scarring, and limbal stem cell deficiency. In children with VKC, these corneal problems might result in irreversible vision loss.
Corneal problems in VKC are caused by an unregulated inflammatory process. Recognizing corneal problems in VKC is critical, since the majority of them may be treated or prevented with a combination of medication and surgical treatments.