Cornea, a dome-shaped and transparent front part of the eye, affords 2/3rd refraction and barrier functions. Globally, corneal diseases are the leading cause of vision impairment. Loss of corneal function including opacification involve the complex crosstalk and perturbation between a variety of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors generated by corneal keratocytes, epithelial cells, lacrimal tissues, nerves, and immune cells. Conventional small-molecule drugs can treat mild-to-moderate traumatic corneal pathology but requires frequent application and often fails to treat severe pathologies. The corneal transplant surgery is a standard of care to restore vision in patients. However, declining availability and rising demand of donor corneas are major concerns to maintain ophthalmic care. Thus, the development of efficient and safe nonsurgical methods to cure corneal disorders and restore vision in vivo is highly desired. Gene-based therapy has huge potential to cure corneal blindness. To achieve a nonimmunogenic, safe and sustained therapeutic response, the selection of a relevant genes, gene editing methods and suitable delivery vectors are vital. This article describes corneal structural and functional features, mechanistic understanding of gene therapy vectors, gene editing methods, gene delivery tools, and status of gene therapy for treating corneal disorders, diseases, and genetic dystrophies.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.