The impact of gender on clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has generated conflicting results. We investigated the impact of gender, on 30-day mortality, complications and late survival in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing CABG. The study included 1308 patients enrolled from the biennial Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey between 2000 and 2016, who were hospitalized for ACS and underwent CABG. Of them, 1045 (80%) were men and 263 (20%) women. While women were older and had more hypertension and hyperlipidemia, they demonstrated less diabetes mellitus, previous ischemic heart disease, smoking, and fewer implicated coronary arteries. Women presented with more atypical symptoms as compared to men (26.3% vs. 19.4%, p=0.017). Overall multivariable-adjusted 30-day mortality was higher in women than in men (OR 2.47 95%CI 1.19-5.1, p=0.015). Among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI, women had a higher 10-year mortality rate than men (42.5% vs. 19.2%, log-rank p<0.001 and 31.5% vs. 20.7%, log-rank, p=0.012). However, in patients with unstable angina pectoris on admission, these differences were not seen (16.9% vs. 13.4%, log-rank p=0.540). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that female gender was a significant predictor for 10-year mortality (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.02-1.9, p=0.038). In a real-life setting, women constitute an independent predictor for short- and long-term mortality following ACS treated by CABG surgery. The reasons for a higher mortality in women should be further investigated as well as specific and/or more intensive therapies after CABG in this high-risk group of patients.
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