To investigate the relationship between the expression of CC and CXC chemokines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).A total of 62 children with ASD (ASD group) and 60 gender- and age-matched normal children (control group) admitted to our hospital from January 2019 to January 2020 were included in the study. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monokine induced by interferon (IFN)-γ (MIG), and purified human interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) were detected in the ASD group. The correlation between the above indexes and the severity of the ASD group was analyzed.Significantly increased MCP-1 levels (P < .01) along with the markedly decreased MIP-1α and MIP-1β levels (P  .05). Children in the ASD group showed significantly decreased IP-10 levels (P  .05). MCP-1 level was positively related to the Module 1 scores of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-second edition (ADOS-2), whereas the levels of Childhood Autism Rating Scale MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-8, IP-10, and MIG were negatively correlated with the ADOS-2 Module 1 scores (P  .05).The levels of CC chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES) and CXC chemokines (IL-8, IP-10, and MIG) are positively correlated with the pathogenesis of ASD. Inflammation is an important contributing factor to ASD.
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