To estimate the cost-effectiveness and value of information of cabozantinib compared to nivolumab in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients, who previously failed treatment from a societal perspective in South Korea.
A partitioned survival model was used to evaluate the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of cabozantinib versus nivolumab. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) curves were obtained from a network meta-analysis that included METEOR and CheckMate 025 trial results. Utility values for health states and adverse events were estimated based on the EQ-5D-5L data of METEOR trial with a Korean-specific tariff. Costs were estimated by a micro-costing approach using healthcare claims data and expert consultation. The impact of uncertainties in the model were explored by scenario analyses, and deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The expected value of perfect information (EVPI) was estimated to assess the value of future research to decrease decision uncertainty.
Compared to nivolumab, cabozantinib was associated with improved OS, PFS, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at greater cost. The ICUR was $34,445 per QALY. In sensitivity analysis, drug costs had the greatest influence on the ICUR. Cabozantinib had a 68.0% probability of being cost-effective at a threshold of 2 times gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. The population EVPI was $82.6 million at 2 GDP threshold.
Cabozantinib was found to be cost-effective for advanced RCC patients after failure of prior therapy at a 2 GDP threshold. Future research that costs less than the estimated population EVPI would be worth considering for a comparison of cabozantinib and nivolumab.