Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)

1. COVID-19 Pandemic is associated with higher gestational weight gain and higher risk of excessive gestational weight gain.

Weight gain in adults, children and adolescents has been associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine if gestational weight gain (GWG) changes were associated with the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic was defined as the time period from March 1 to December 31, 2020. Excessive GWG was defined as weight gain above the BMI specific Institute of Medicine recommendations. This analysis included 2 847 592 singleton births in 2020 and compared this group with 2 847 592 singleton births in 2018. Covariates were adjusted for and pre-pandemic trends in GWG were excluded. This study found an increase of 0.06 kg (95% CI, 0.04-0.07 kg) in GWG, with more pronounced increases in pregnant individuals younger than 25 years (net change, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.19-0.26), non-Hispanic Black individuals (net change, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.07-0.16), unmarried individuals (net change, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.13-0.19), individuals who had obesity before pregnancy (net change, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.14-0.21), and individuals who used Medicaid to pay for delivery (net change, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.15-0.20). Excessive GWG was also found to be associated with the pandemic (ratio of odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02). Limitations o this study include self-reporting of pre-pregnancy height and weight. Overall, the study suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with higher GWG and higher risk of excessive GWG in more vulnerable populations.

Click to read the study in JAMA Network Open

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