Journal of nursing management 2018 04 14() doi 10.1111/jonm.12612
To adapt the Neonatal Skin Risk Assessment Scale to the Spanish context and to test its validity and reliability.
Currently, in Spain there are no validated scales to evaluate the risk of pressure ulcers in infants.
The research was performed in 10 neonatal units. Overall, we use an observational study design, but divided it in to three stages. In the first stage, the transcultural adaptation of the scale and its content validation was performed. For the second stage, the inter-rater/intra-rater agreement and construct validity were evaluated using a cross-sectional design. Finally, in the third stage, a cohort study to analyse pressure ulcers’ incidence, diagnostic tests and the cut-off points of the scale was performed.
In the first phase, the content validity index was 0.93. In the second phase (336 neonates), the intra-rater reliability was 0.93 and the inter-rater reliability was 0.97. The construct validity has shown a two-dimensional model that fits better, representing "pressure duration and intensity" and "skin immaturity." In the third phase (268 neonates) the best values were those presented by the score 17: receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84, showing a sensitivity of 91.18%, specificity of 76.50%, positive predictive value of 36.05% and negative predictive value of 98.35%.
The scale has shown evidence of validity and reliability to measure the neonatal risk of pressure ulcers in the Spanish context.
IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT
Pressure ulcers are an adverse event recognised in paediatric units and specifically in neonatal units. The intent of the Spanish Neonatal Skin Risk Assessment Scale is to identify hospitalised neonates requiring prevention measures and their specific risk factors, to provide useful diagnostic information to improve the neonatal skin care into Spanish speaking countries. The Neonatal Skin Risk Assessment Scale could ensure the efficient and effective allocation of limited preventive resources, support clinical and management decisions, allow risk-adjusted cases in epidemiological studies, facilitate the development of risk assessment protocols and serve as evidence in litigation cases. All these features could facilitate developing best practice in nursing management and improve the quality and safety of neonatal care.