BMJ open 2017 03 227(3) e015026 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015026
To assess associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) by carotid ultrasound (CUS), a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, in those with type 2 diabetes.
Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 325 participants from three randomised controlled trials collected in the same way.
Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
325 participants with type 2 diabetes, taking oral antidiabetic agents, with an HbA1c between 6.5% and 8.0% at screening, without a recent cardiovascular event.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
CIMT by CUS and associations with dietary intake from 7-day food records, as well as anthropometric measures and fasting serum samples.
CIMT was significantly inversely associated with dietary pulse intake (β=-0.019, p=0.009), available carbohydrate (β=-0.004, p=0.008), glycaemic load (β=-0.001, p=0.007) and starch (β=-0.126, p=0.010), and directly associated with total (β=0.004, p=0.028) and saturated (β=0.012, p=0.006) fat intake in multivariate regression models adjusted for age, smoking, previous CVD event, blood pressure medication, antidiabetic medication and ultrasonographer.
Lower CIMT was significantly associated with greater consumption of dietary pulses and carbohydrates and lower total and saturated fat intake, suggesting a potential role for diet in CVD risk management in type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trials are anticipated to explore these associations further.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER