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Cross-sectional associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness in type 2 diabetes: baseline data from a randomised trial.

Cross-sectional associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness in type 2 diabetes: baseline data from a randomised trial.
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Chiavaroli L, Mirrahimi A, Ireland C, Mitchell S, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Coveney J, Olowoyeye O, Patel D, de Souza RJ, Augustin LS, Bashyam B, Pichika SC, Blanco Mejia S, Nishi SK, Leiter LA, Josse RG, McKeown-Eyssen GE, Moody AR, Kendall CW, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins DJ,


Chiavaroli L, Mirrahimi A, Ireland C, Mitchell S, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Coveney J, Olowoyeye O, Patel D, de Souza RJ, Augustin LS, Bashyam B, Pichika SC, Blanco Mejia S, Nishi SK, Leiter LA, Josse RG, McKeown-Eyssen GE, Moody AR, Kendall CW, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins DJ, (click to view)

Chiavaroli L, Mirrahimi A, Ireland C, Mitchell S, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Coveney J, Olowoyeye O, Patel D, de Souza RJ, Augustin LS, Bashyam B, Pichika SC, Blanco Mejia S, Nishi SK, Leiter LA, Josse RG, McKeown-Eyssen GE, Moody AR, Kendall CW, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins DJ,

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BMJ open 2017 03 227(3) e015026 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015026
Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To assess associations between dietary intake and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) by carotid ultrasound (CUS), a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, in those with type 2 diabetes.

DESIGN
Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 325 participants from three randomised controlled trials collected in the same way.

SETTING
Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Canada.

PARTICIPANTS
325 participants with type 2 diabetes, taking oral antidiabetic agents, with an HbA1c between 6.5% and 8.0% at screening, without a recent cardiovascular event.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
CIMT by CUS and associations with dietary intake from 7-day food records, as well as anthropometric measures and fasting serum samples.

RESULTS
CIMT was significantly inversely associated with dietary pulse intake (β=-0.019, p=0.009), available carbohydrate (β=-0.004, p=0.008), glycaemic load (β=-0.001, p=0.007) and starch (β=-0.126, p=0.010), and directly associated with total (β=0.004, p=0.028) and saturated (β=0.012, p=0.006) fat intake in multivariate regression models adjusted for age, smoking, previous CVD event, blood pressure medication, antidiabetic medication and ultrasonographer.

CONCLUSIONS
Lower CIMT was significantly associated with greater consumption of dietary pulses and carbohydrates and lower total and saturated fat intake, suggesting a potential role for diet in CVD risk management in type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trials are anticipated to explore these associations further.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER
NCT01063374.

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