Histopathology 72(1) 32-39 doi 10.1111/his.13335
In the modern era, a pathology report of thyroid carcinoma requires the inclusion of numerous prognostically relevant histopathological features, e.g. the presence and extent of vascular and capsular invasion, extrathyroidal extension, the surgical margin status and the characteristics of nodal metastasis. These pathological features are crucial components of the initial risk stratification to determine the need for completion thyroidectomy and/or postoperative radioactive iodine ablation therapy. The current review aims to summarise the diagnostic criteria, the controversies, the prognostic impacts and the challenges of these pathological characteristics, focusing specifically on the parameters that are incorporated into the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, the College of American Pathologists (CAP) reporting template, the American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines.