Mycopathologia 2017 12 06() doi 10.1007/s11046-017-0233-6
Cryptococcus gattii is an endemic fungus predominantly isolated in the tropical and subtropical regions, causing predominantly pulmonary disease with a predilection for the central nervous system. Herein, we report a case of rapidly progressing C. gattii pneumonia in an immune-deficient but virologically suppressed host with underlying human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infection, exhibiting various fungal morphologies from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytological specimens. A 51-year-old Chinese male with known HIV disease was admitted to the Singapore General Hospital for evaluation of functional decline, febrile episodes, and a left hilar mass on chest radiograph. Computed tomography (CT) showed consolidation in the apical segment of the left lower lobe. He underwent bronchoscopy and BAL. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography done 10 days after the initial CT showed approximate doubling of the pulmonary lesion. Cytological examination of the fluid revealed yeasts of varying sizes. Subsequent fungal culture from BAL fluid grew C. gattii 10 days later.