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Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons in Ebonyi and Nsukka, Nigeria.

Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons in Ebonyi and Nsukka, Nigeria.
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Ukwah BN, Ezeonu IM, Ezeonu CT, Roellig D, Xiao L,


Ukwah BN, Ezeonu IM, Ezeonu CT, Roellig D, Xiao L, (click to view)

Ukwah BN, Ezeonu IM, Ezeonu CT, Roellig D, Xiao L,

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Journal of infection in developing countries 2017 02 2811(2) 173-179 doi 10.3855/jidc.8034

Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease of children and immune-compromised persons. This study evaluated the diversity and distribution of Cryptosporidium species in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and those not on HAART.

METHODOLOGY
A total of 394 fecal specimens were collected from patients attending clinics in Nsukka and Ebonyi, Nigeria. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species were conducted by PCR-RFLP of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, whereas subtyping was done by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene.

RESULTS
Twenty-five (6.3%) specimens yielded four Cryptosporidium species, including C. hominis, C. parvum, C. felis, and C. viatorum. C. hominis was the most dominant species with 48.0% occurrence and three identified subtype families: Ia (six specimens), Ib (three specimens), Ie (two specimens), and one un-subtyped species. C. parvum had 44.0% occurrence and two subtype families: IIc (eight specimens) and IIe (three specimens), while C. felis and C. viatorum each had 4.0% occurrence. There were significant differences in Cryptosporidium species distribution between age groups in children and HIV-infected persons, between suburban and urban areas, and between low and high CD4+ cell counts in HIV-infected patients. There were no significant differences in infection rate and species distribution between HIV-infected patients on HAART and those not on HAART.

CONCLUSIONS
The results from this study show that there is a high diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans in Ebonyi and Nsukka, Nigeria, and that all the C. parvum subtypes identified are most likely anthroponotic in origin.

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