Advertisement

 

 

Crystal Structure of the DNA-Binding Domain of Human Herpesvirus 6A Immediate Early Protein 2.

Crystal Structure of the DNA-Binding Domain of Human Herpesvirus 6A Immediate Early Protein 2.
Author Information (click to view)

Nishimura M, Wang J, Wakata A, Sakamoto K, Mori Y,


Nishimura M, Wang J, Wakata A, Sakamoto K, Mori Y, (click to view)

Nishimura M, Wang J, Wakata A, Sakamoto K, Mori Y,

Advertisement

Journal of virology 2017 10 1391(21) pii 10.1128/JVI.01121-17

Abstract

Immediate early proteins of human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) are expressed at the outset of lytic infection and thereby regulate viral gene expression. Immediate early protein 2 (IE2) of HHV-6A is a transactivator that drives a variety of promoters. The C-terminal region of HHV-6A IE2 is shared among IE2 homologs in betaherpesviruses and is involved in dimerization, DNA binding, and transcription factor binding. In this study, the structure of the IE2 C-terminal domain (IE2-CTD) was determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 2.5 Å. IE2-CTD forms a homodimer stabilized by a β-barrel core with two interchanging long loops. Unexpectedly, the core structure resembles those of the gammaherpesvirus factors EBNA1 of Epstein-Barr virus and LANA of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, but the interchanging loops are longer in IE2-CTD and form helix-turn-helix (HTH)-like motifs at their tips. The HTH and surrounding α-helices form a structural feature specific to the IE2 group. The apparent DNA-binding site (based on structural similarity with EBNA1 and LANA) resides on the opposite side of the HTH-like motifs, surrounded by positive electrostatic potential. Mapping analysis of conserved residues on the three-dimensional structure delineated a potential factor-binding site adjacent to the expected DNA-binding site. The predicted bi- or tripartite functional sites indicate a role for IE2-CTD as an adapter connecting the promoter and transcriptional factors that drive gene expression.IMPORTANCE Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B belong to betaherpesvirus subfamily. Both viruses establish lifelong latency after primary infection, and their reactivation poses a significant risk to immunocompromised patients. Immediate early protein 2 (IE2) of HHV-6A and HHV-6B is a transactivator that triggers viral replication and contains a DNA-binding domain shared with other betaherpesviruses such as human herpesvirus 7 and human cytomegalovirus. In this study, an atomic structure of the DNA-binding domain of HHV-6A IE2 was determined and analyzed, enabling a structure-based understanding of the functions of IE2, specifically DNA recognition and interaction with transcription factors. Unexpectedly, the dimeric core resembles the DNA-binding domain of transcription regulators from gammaherpesviruses, showing structural conservation as a DNA-binding domain but with its own unique structural features. These findings facilitate further characterization of this key viral transactivator.

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

2 × 2 =

[ HIDE/SHOW ]