PloS one 2017 11 0212(11) e0186055 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0186055
The aim of this study was to compare computed tomography (CT) scans of chest and lung function among patients with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV) with and without HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In this cross-sectional study performed between January 2013 and June 2016, we included 48 patients with HAM/TSP (19 women and 11 men) and without HAM/TSP (12 women and 6 men). We compared CT findings and lung functions of these groups. Patients who had HAM/TSP had abnormal CT findings (P = 0.000), including more frequent bronchiectasis (P = 0.049), parenchymal bands (P = 0.007), interlobular septal thickening (P = 0.035), and pleural thickening (P = 0.009). In addition, neither patients with HAM/TSP (9/30; 30%) nor the controls (0/18; 0%) had obstructive or restrictive lung disease (P = 0.009). HTLV diagnosis should be considered in all patients with abnormal CT findings in whom no other cause is apparent. It is important to remember that lung disease increases the rates of morbidity and mortality in developing countries.