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Current and future immunotherapies for thyroid cancer.

Current and future immunotherapies for thyroid cancer.
Author Information (click to view)

Antonelli A, Ferrari SM, Fallahi P,


Antonelli A, Ferrari SM, Fallahi P, (click to view)

Antonelli A, Ferrari SM, Fallahi P,

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Expert review of anticancer therapy 2017 12 2218(2) 149-159 doi 10.1080/14737140.2018.1417845

Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Cancer immunotherapies were approved in recent years, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Experience with ipilimumab (CTLA-4 antagonist), nivolumab and pembrolizumab (PD-1 antagonists), and atezolizumab (PD-L1 antagonist) has shown that the impact on overall survival in cancer patients is paramount. Immune checkpoint inhibitors target the immune system and they can be applied across multiple cancers; the response rate is ranging from 20 to 40%. Many studies have shown that thyroid cancer (TC) cells produce cytokines and chemokines, inducing several tumor-promoting effects. Targeting and/or lowering cytokines and chemokines concentrations within the tumor microenvironment would produce a therapeutic benefit. In TC, increased Treg and PD-1+ T cell frequencies are indicative of aggressive disease and PD-L1 expression correlates with a greater risk of recurrence. Area covered: After performing a literature search, a few pioneering studies have evaluated immunotherapy in thyroid cancer. More recently a case has been described involving anaplastic thyroid cancer treated with vemurafenib and nivolumab, with substantial regression and complete radiographic and clinical remission. Expert commentary: The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in aggressive TC has not yet been extensively investigated and further studies in a large number of TC patients are urgently needed.

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