World journal of urology 2018 03 31() doi 10.1007/s00345-018-2277-8
We aim to summarize the literature on international patterns of care for patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB) from spinal cord injury (SCI).
We performed a PubMed database search, hand review of references, communication with professional societies, and registry evaluations for pertinent data.
Established patterns of care, including SCI registries and specialty centers, are available in high-resource countries such as the US and UK. As such, mortality rates from complications of NGB/SCI are lower. Access to intermittent catheterization supplies, among other resources, may be inadequate in many low-income regions. Cultural and religious beliefs may also hinder integration of proper bladder management in SCI patients. While guidelines exist in many parts of the world, it is unclear how rigorously they are disseminated or followed.
While there is a paucity of high-level evidence, the differences in patterns of care are closely related to socioeconomic status and resources of the geographic area. Future research efforts should focus on improving access to diagnostic modalities, supplies, and specialists in these areas.