The real-world status of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving antithrombotic treatment is largely unknown. The All Nippon AF In the Elderly (ANAFIE) Registry, a prospective, multicenter, observational study, aimed to determine treatment patterns, risk factors, and outcomes among elderly (aged ≥75 years) Japanese non-valvular AF (NVAF) patients in the real-world clinical setting. The present subanalysis of the ANAFIE Registry determined the PPI prescription status of 32,490 elderly Japanese NVAF patients. Patients were stratified by PPI use (PPI+) or no PPI use (PPI-). Risk scores for stroke (CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc) and bleeding (HAS-BLED), anticoagulant use, time in therapeutic range (TTR) for warfarin, and anticoagulant/antiplatelet combination use were evaluated. PPIs were used in 11,981 (36.9%) patients. Compared with the PPI- group, the PPI+ group included a greater proportion of female patients (45.2% vs 41.3%; P <0.0001) and had significantly higher CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores (P <0.0001 for each) as well as higher prevalences of several comorbidities. In the PPI+ group, 54.6% of patients did not have gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and were likely prescribed a PPI to prevent GI bleeding events. Most of the patients with a GI disorder in the PPI+ group had reflux esophagitis. Compared with patients not receiving anticoagulants, a significantly higher proportion of patients receiving anticoagulants received PPIs. For patients receiving anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, and both drugs, rates of PPI use were 34.1%, 44.1%, and 53.5%, respectively (P <0.01). Although the rate of PPI use was the highest for NVAF patients receiving both antiplatelet and anticoagulants, no clear differences were observed in the anticoagulants used. These data suggest that PPIs were actively prescribed in high-risk cases and may have been used to prevent GI bleeding among elderly NVAF patients receiving antithrombotic drugs. Trial registration: UMIN000024006.