Biomedicines 2018 03 236(2) pii 10.3390/biomedicines6020037
The interaction of the immune system with cancer is complex, but new approaches are resulting in exciting therapeutic benefits. In order to enhance the immune response to cancer, immune therapies seek to either induce high avidity immune responses to tumour specific antigens or to convert the tumour to a more pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Strategies, including vaccination, oncolytic viruses, and adoptive cell transfer all seek to induce anti-tumour immunity. To overcome the suppressive tumour microenvironment checkpoint inhibitors and modulators of regulatory cell populations have been investigated. This review summarizes the recent advances in immune therapies and discusses the importance of combination therapies in the treatment of cancers.