Dry eye disease (DED), keratoconjunctivitis sicca or dysfunctional tear syndrome, is the most prevalent ophthalmic disease which affects a substantial segment of people worldwide with increasing frequency. It is considered a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film, characterized by a variation of signs and symptoms. The symptoms range from mild to severe itching, burning, irritation, eye fatigue, and ocular inflammation that may lead to potential damage to the cornea, conjunctiva and even vision loss. Correspondingly, depending on the different manifestations and pathophysiology, the treatment must be tailored specifically to each patient by targeting the specific mechanisms implicated in their disease. Currently, there are several medical products and techniques available or under investigation for the treatment of DED. The present article focused on the pathophysiology of DED, the new diagnostic approach and the recently developed drug delivery systems or devices reducing the progress of the disease and treating the causes.
Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier B.V.