AMD3100 (plerixafor), a CXCR4 antagonist, has opened a variety of avenues for potential therapeutic approaches in different refractory diseases. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis and its signaling pathways are involved in diverse disorders including HIV-1 infection, tumor development, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, WHIM Syndrome, and so on. The mechanisms of action of AMD3100 may relate to mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells, blocking infection of X4 HIV-1, increasing circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes, reducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and enhancing cytotoxic T-cell infiltration in tumors. Here, we first revisit the pharmacological discovery of AMD3100. We then review monotherapy of AMD3100 and combination use of AMD3100 with other agents in various diseases. Among those, we highlight the perspective of AMD3100 as an immunomodulator to regulate immune responses particularly in the tumor microenvironment and synergize with other therapeutics. All the pre-clinical studies support the clinical testing of the monotherapy and combination therapies with AMD3100 and further development for use in humans.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.