Early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could facilitate timely and appropriate monitoring and therapy. Traditional biomarkers have limitations. Thus, new biomarkers are needed. The objective of the present study was to compare renal biomarkers (including symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), cystatin C (CysC), and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)-creatinine ration (UNCR)) and creatinine (CREA) for early detection of CKD in dogs. Nine healthy dogs and 32 dogs with CKD were included in this study. All dogs underwent physical examination, blood analysis (included CREA and SDMA), urinalysis, and imaging examinations. CysC and NGAL levels were measured in serum and urine, respectively. SDMA, CysC, and UNCR were significantly elevated in dogs with CKD and IRIS stage Ι (P < 0.0001) than in controls. CysC demonstrated a strong correlation with CREA (r = 0.6556, P < 0.0001). CysC (sensitivity 93.55%, specificity 100%) had the highest sensitivity for detecting CKD, followed by UNCR (sensitivity 90%, specificity 100%), SDMA (sensitivity 84.37%, specificity 100%), and CREA (sensitivity 43.75%, specificity 100%). Additionally, CysC and UNCR (sensitivity 88.89%, specificity 100%) exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity than CREA (sensitivity 88.89%, specificity 66.67%) and SDMA (sensitivity 88.89%, specificity 88.89%) in dogs with CKD International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage Ι. CysC as a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary NGAL as a marker of tubular damage could be used to detect CKD early in dogs better than CREA and SDMA.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.