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Cysteamine-mediated clearance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in human cystic fibrosis macrophages.

Cysteamine-mediated clearance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in human cystic fibrosis macrophages.
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Shrestha CL, Assani KD, Rinehardt H, Albastroiu F, Zhang S, Shell R, Amer AO, Schlesinger LS, Kopp BT,


Shrestha CL, Assani KD, Rinehardt H, Albastroiu F, Zhang S, Shell R, Amer AO, Schlesinger LS, Kopp BT, (click to view)

Shrestha CL, Assani KD, Rinehardt H, Albastroiu F, Zhang S, Shell R, Amer AO, Schlesinger LS, Kopp BT,

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PloS one 2017 10 0512(10) e0186169 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0186169
Abstract

Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are virulent, multi-drug resistant pathogens that survive and replicate intracellularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We have discovered that B. cenocepacia cannot be cleared from CF macrophages due to defective autophagy, causing continued systemic inflammation and infection. Defective autophagy in CF is mediated through constitutive reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation of transglutaminase-2 (TG2), which causes the sequestration (accumulation) of essential autophagy initiating proteins. Cysteamine is a TG2 inhibitor and proteostasis regulator with the potential to restore autophagy. Therefore, we sought to examine the impact of cysteamine on CF macrophage autophagy and bacterial killing. Human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and alveolar macrophages were isolated from CF and non-CF donors. Macrophages were infected with clinical isolates of relevant CF pathogens. Cysteamine caused direct bacterial growth killing of live B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, P. aeruginosa and MRSA in the absence of cells. Additionally, B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, and P. aeruginosa invasion were significantly decreased in CF MDMs treated with cysteamine. Finally, cysteamine decreased TG2, p62, and beclin-1 accumulation in CF, leading to increased Burkholderia uptake into autophagosomes, increased macrophage CFTR expression, and decreased ROS and IL-1β production. Cysteamine has direct anti-bacterial growth killing and improves human CF macrophage autophagy resulting in increased macrophage-mediated bacterial clearance, decreased inflammation, and reduced constitutive ROS production. Thus, cysteamine may be an effective adjunct to antibiotic regimens in CF.

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