Germline and somatic mutations of DICER1 have been identified in various types of neoplastic lesions, with germline DICER1 mutation being linked to autosomal dominant hereditary pleiotropic tumor syndrome (DICER1 syndrome). Patients with DICER1 syndrome are at increased risk of developing thyroid disease, including thyroid cancer. The goal of this study was to identify diagnostic cytologic features in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples from patients with DICER1 mutation.
Cytology cases of thyroid FNA from 7 patients with DICER1 mutation were identified. Clinical, imaging, cytomorphologic, and molecular data were analyzed.
Cytologic preparations from reviewed cases showed thyroid lesions of follicular derivation with scant colloid, moderate cellularity, uniform follicular cells with round nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli arranged in small crowded groups and microfollicles. Follicular neoplasm was diagnosed in 4 cases and follicular lesion of undetermined significance in 3 cases, based on the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Histopathological analysis of thyroid tissue confirmed neoplastic process in 6 out of 7 cases: follicular carcinoma (FC, 3 cases), papillary thyroid carcinoma (2 cases), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC, 1 case). Genetic studies identified 3 different somatic variants of DICER1 gene, including transcript consequence c.5428G>T, which was detected in FC and PDTC (and has been described previously in multinodular goiter).
DICER1 mutation in all analyzed patients was identified as a result of thyroid FNA evaluation, emphasizing the critical role of FNA in the screening of patients with thyroid nodules, proper diagnosis of thyroid disease, and monitoring of patients with DICER1 mutation.

© 2020 American Cancer Society.