By investigating the relationship between dairy fat consumption and the quantity of liver fat, the study hoped to assess the relevance of paediatric dairy fat guidelines for children at risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Odd chain fatty acids (OCFA), such as pentadecanoic acid (C15:0), and monomethyl branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), such as iso-heptadecanoic acid, may influence the effects of dairy fat (iso-C17:0). As a result, the study investigated the relationship between plasma OCFA and BCFA levels and the quantity of liver fat. 237 children aged 8 to 17 were sampled in an observational, cross-sectional, community-based study. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify plasma fatty acids. The primary endpoint was hepatic steatosis as evaluated by whole-liver magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF). The average daily dairy fat consumption was 10.6 grams. Dairy fat consumption was shown to be inversely associated with liver MRI-PDFF. Plasma C15:0 and iso-C17:0 were inverse predictors of liver MRI-PDFF in multivariable log linear regression.

Dairy fat consumption, plasma C15:0, and plasma iso-C17:0 were all found to be inversely associated with hepatic steatosis in children. Clinical studies should be used to examine these hypothesis-generating findings in order to better inform dietary guidelines.