The first step in avoiding liability due to patient non-compliance is identifying that the patient actually is non-compliant. Then, ask about the reason for it and do what you can to counter it. Your record must reflect your attempt to determine what correctable issues underlie the non-compliance and what steps you took to counter it. If non-compliance is not solvable as a single issue and verbal reminders are not fruitful, you can consider a treatment contract, which breaks the compliance into specific acts of patient cooperation that may be easier to follow. Your last option is an “at risk” letter that states the specific non-compliant acts and their clinical consequences. This can include the warning that a failure to correct the non-compliance will result in termination from the practice. You should not create a “decline” note in which the patient signs their refusal to comply. You would be retaining the patient in your practice despite being unable to treat them as you believe is proper.

Your records need to demonstrate that the patient is being non-compliant rather than just being ill-informed. Descriptions of the patient’s non-compliant conduct should state the fact of the non-compliance undeniably but without condemnatory or self-serving language. But it should not be so removed as to become meaningless in convincing a reviewer that you are not an appropriate target or in closing off patient claims that you never said something you actually did.

When the therapeutic relationship is irrevocably broken down and it is necessary for you to step away because the patient is actually preventing you from practicing medicine properly, you will have to terminate them from your practice. You will then have to consider abandonment. If you are going to take the maximum step against someone who is already in opposition to you, do so carefully. Non-compliance leading to no option but termination is a gradual process by definition and so an evaluator will want to see that it was handled that way.

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You should also consider stating the reason for the termination in a letter. The general rule is to not give a specific reason, but here stating “As we have discussed, and as outlined in the treatment contract that you agreed to, it was essential that you follow through on prescribed care. Due to your continued refusal to follow treatment guidelines, this practice will no longer be able to retain you as a patient as of (date)”  may stop a retaliatory process before it starts.

This article was written by Dr. Medlaw, a physician and medical malpractice attorney.