This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effects of taxifolin hydrate and trehalose on the quality of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa for the first time. Ejaculates collected from six mature rams were pooled, and divided to eight equal aliquots to extend them with different concentrations of glycerol (%5 and %3), taxifolin hydrate (10, 100, and 500 μM), and trehalose (60 mM) as eight groups (G5T0, G5T10, G5T100, G5T500, G3T0, G3T10, G3T100, and G3T500). After freeze-thawing process of cryopreservation, microscopic and oxidative stress parameters, and gene expression levels were investigated for understanding of possible impacts of taxifolin hydrate and trehalose. The study showed that G3T10 resulted in the highest post-thawed viability and mitochondrial activity. Moreover, all extenders with taxifolin hydrate reduced DNA fragmentation in comparison to G5T0, but DNA damage was prevented at the highest rate in presence of G5T10. The level of LPO significantly decreased in the groups G5T500 and G3T100, and the expression levels of NQO1, GCLC, and GSTP1 genes significantly increased in the groups G5T100, G5T500, G3T10, and G3T100 compared to the group G5T0. Finally, co-supplementation of tris-based extender having 3% glycerol with 60 mM trehalose and 10 μM taxifolin hydrate in cryopreservation extender may be recommended to improve the quality of post-thawed ram spermatozoa. However, further in vivo and in vitro studies are suggested to evaluate fertility rates of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa co-supplemented with trehalose and taxifolin hydrate.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.