Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) commonly occurs in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), leading to vascular calcification and increased mortality. For SHPT refractory to medical management, parathyroidectomy improves symptoms and decreases mortality. Medical management has changed with the release of new guidelines and advent of novel medications. We investigate recent national trends in parathyroidectomy for SHPT.
We used the National/Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2004 to 2016 to identify hospitalizations including parathyroidectomy for SHPT and calculated parathyroidectomy rates utilizing data from the United States Renal Data System. Subgroup analysis was conducted by race. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified with purposeful selection and multivariable logistic regression.
From 2004 to 2016, the rate of parathyroidectomies for SHPT per 1000 ESRD patients decreased from 6.07 (95% CI: 4.83-7.32) to 3.67 (95% CI: 3.33-4.00). Black patients underwent parathyroidectomy for SHPT at a 1.8-fold higher rate than white and Hispanic patients (5.59 versus 3.04 and 3.07). Almost all tracked comorbidities increased in prevalence. In-hospital mortality trended lower (1.5% to 0.8%, P = 0.051). Risk factors for in-hospital mortality included weight loss (OR 4.19, 95% CI: 2.00-8.78) and cardiac arrhythmia (OR 3.38, 95% CI: 1.66-6.91), while additional calendar year (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80-0.95) was protective.
The etiology of the declining parathyroidectomy rate for SHPT is unclear; possible factors include changing guidelines emphasizing medical management, widespread availability of cinacalcet, changing practice patterns, and inadequate surgical referral.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.