Deep hashing method is widely applied in the field of image retrieval because of its advantages of low storage consumption and fast retrieval speed. There is a defect of insufficiency feature extraction when existing deep hashing method uses the convolutional neural network (CNN) to extract images semantic features. Some studies propose to add channel-based or spatial-based attention modules. However, embedding these modules into the network can increase the complexity of model and lead to over fitting in the training process. In this study, a novel deep parameter-free attention hashing (DPFAH) is proposed to solve these problems, that designs a parameter-free attention (PFA) module in ResNet18 network. PFA is a lightweight module that defines an energy function to measure the importance of each neuron and infers 3-D attention weights for feature map in a layer. A fast closed-form solution for this energy function proves that the PFA module does not add any parameters to the network. Otherwise, this paper designs a novel hashing framework that includes the hash codes learning branch and the classification branch to explore more label information. The like-binary codes are constrained by a regulation term to reduce the quantization error in the continuous relaxation. Experiments on CIFAR-10, NUS-WIDE and Imagenet-100 show that DPFAH method achieves better performance.© 2022. The Author(s).
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