Nasal polyposis is caused by two major factors: a significant imbalance in immunomodulation and mechanical dysfunction caused by an aberrant remodeling process. Dendritic cells are involved in the severe inflammatory process observed in nasal polypoid tissue and play an important role in the connection between innate and adaptive immune responses as well as directing the T-cell response. This review highlights the current state of information regarding dendritic cells in nasal polyposis. Dendritic cells, independent of subgroups, are observed to be elevated in nasal polyposis. Intriguingly, plasmacytoid dendritic cells are reduced in individuals with a more severe Th2 profile, indicating that the cytokine milieu plays an essential role in their functional response or that plasmacytoid dendritic cells may operate to mitigate the inflammatory process observed in polypoid tissue.

Understanding the expression of dendritic cell subsets in diverse settings, as well as the influence of these subsets on T-cell differentiation, would substantially aid in the development of novel nasal polyposis treatments.