Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 2017 07 2742(5) 1812-1821 doi 10.1159/000479537
Osteosarcoma is the predominant form of primary bone malignancy. Although the combinational application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgical resection significantly increases the survival rate, the therapeutic outcome remains unsatisfactory. Deoxyelephantopin (DET), an active ingredient of Elephantopus scaber, has been reported to have an anti-tumor effect in recent publications. This study aimed to investigate whether DET has antineoplastic effects on osteosarcoma cells and its underlying mechanism.
Cell viability and morphological changes were assessed by MTT and Live/dead assays. Cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected utilizing Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, DCFH-DA and JC-1 probes, respectively. Autophagy was detected by mRFP-GFP-LC3 adenovirus transfection and western blot.
DET dose-dependently reduced the viability of osteosarcoma cells following the increase in intracellular ROS levels. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reversed this effect. Furthermore, DET induced mitochondrial apoptosis. Depolarized cells were increased, and apoptosis-related proteins, such as Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved ploy ADP-ribose polymerase, were activated. Additionally, we found that DET could induce autophagy in osteosarcoma cells, but autophagy inhibition did not affect the decrease in cell viability.
DET induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells through ROS generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation; in addition, autophagy was involved in the effects of DET on osteosarcoma cells.