Survey results from patients on chronic opioid therapy with no history of sub­stance abuse sug­gest that depressive symptoms among this population appear to be associated with opioid mis­use. Patients with moderate and severe depression were 1.8 and 2.4 times more likely, respectively, than non-depressed patients to misuse an opioid medication for non-pain symptoms. When compared with non-depressed patients, those with mild, moderate, and severe depression were 1.9, 2.9, and 3.1 times more likely, respectively, to self-increase their opioid dose.

Abstract: Annals of Family Medicine, July/August 2012.