Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant tumors. Depressive and anxiety disorders may co-exist with GBM. We investigated whether depression and anxiety influenced the outcomes of GBM. The Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scales were used to investigate the mental condition of GBM patients in our department, and the overall survival times of these patients were monitored. The scores on both scales were higher in GBM patients than in healthy controls. For each scale, GBM patients were divided into high- and low-score groups based on the average score. The prognosis was poorer for GBM patients in the high-score groups than for those in the low-score groups. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that tumor necrosis was more prevalent among high-scored GBM patients. Cellular experiments were performed on primary GBM cells from patients with either high or low scores on both scales. Sphere formation, EdU and wound healing assays revealed greater proliferation and invasion capacities in GBM cells from patients with high scores on both scales. Western blotting assay revealed significantly different expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers between the two groups. Thus, our analysis revealed a clinically important correlation between depression/anxiety and GBM prognosis.

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PubMed