Many patients are treated for glaucoma. Like other drugs, anti-glaucoma eye drops may induce dermatological adverse effects. We aim to review the dermatological adverse effects secondary to the active agents in anti-glaucoma eye drops through a literature review. In January 2020, we queried PubMed using the following MeSH terms: glaucoma/drug therapy or glaucoma, open angle/drug therapy cross-referenced with parasympathomimetics/adverse effects or adrenergic agonists/adverse effects or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/adverse effects or prostaglandins F, synthetic/adverse effects or adrenergic beta antagonists/adverse effects or ophthalmic solutions/adverse effects. The initial search identified 1128 studies, of which 49 were excluded for being in a foreign language, 15 for not involving eye drops, 968 for not focusing on adverse dermatological effects, and 11 for insufficient documentation or redundancy. After adding 38 linked studies, we finally analysed 123 studies. The ocular and periocular dermatological adverse effects of eye drops are contact dermatitis, hyperpigmentation, prostaglandin analogue periorbitopathy, mucous membrane pemphigoid, eyelash depigmentation, skin hypertrichosis, and rare cases of melanoma and skin depigmentation. The reported distant dermatological adverse effects are psoriasis, excessive sweating, lichen planus, alopecia, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, erythroderma, subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, nail pigmentation and bullous pemphigoid. Most of the cutaneous adverse effects of anti-glaucoma eye drops are ocular and periocular and induced by prostaglandin analogues. Distant adverse effects are rare and sometimes questionable but should be kept in mind, especially mucous membrane pemphigoid, which could lead to blindness. The role of preservatives, such as benzalkonium chloride, should also be considered.
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