Acute and chronic inflammatory skin diseases are frequent in childhood and may be hereditary or acquired. In this context, ichthyosis is rather a symptom than a defined disease as scaling is accompanying a number of disorders and is mostly consequence of a disrupted skin barrier. Ichthyosis is the basic pathogenic trait of atopic dermatitis but on the other side describes a group of rare hereditary diseases. These may only affect the skin or comprise several internal symptoms as well. Psoriasis is another scaling inflammatory skin disease with classical sharply demarcated erythematosquamous plaques and with a distinct immunogenetic background. It comprises several clinical subsets, some of which are characteristic for children and demanding in both diagnostics and therapy. Comorbid diseases point towards a systemic inflammatory response and require ample, often systemic treatment. Both ichthyosis and psoriasis may be topically treated including emollients with and without humectants as well as active agents like corticosteroids, vitamin D derivatives, and calcineurin inhibitors. In moderate to severe diseases, systemic treatment should be applied using methotrexate, ciclosporin, fumarates, or biologics. Their use should be critically discussed yet if necessary and indicated be applied to avoid chronic physical and psychological damage to the affected children.