Journal of neurovirology 2017 07 05() doi 10.1007/s13365-017-0549-5
In the absence of effective prophylaxis and treatment, therapeutic options in HIV-positive patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) are limited to antiretroviral therapy: nevertheless, outcome is poor. We conducted a retrospective study (2009-2015) describing the outcome of 25 HIV-positive patients with detectable cerebrospinal fluid JC virus DNA: 14 had a probable PML while the others had evidence of other inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) affecting disorders. In the former group, 6-month mortality was 45.5% vs 21.4 in the latter one: survival was higher than previously described but no predictor of poor outcome was identified. Two patients treated with 5HT2-inhibitors survived. The contributing role of JCV replication in other CNS-affecting disorders needs to be assessed as well as the benefits of 5HT2-inhibitors in HIV-positive patients with proven PML.