Prostate cancer (PCa) is second only to lung cancer as a cause of death. Clinical assessment of patients and treatment efficiency therefore depend on the disease being diagnosed as early as possible. However, due to issues regarding the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for screening purposes, PCa management is among the most contentious of healthcare matters. PSA screening is problematic primarily because of diagnosis difficulties and the high rate of false-positive biopsies. Novel PCa biomarkers, such as the Prostate Health Index (PHI) and the 4Kscore, have been proposed in recent times to improve PSA prediction accuracy and have shown higher performance by preventing redundant biopsies. The 4Kscore also shows high precision in determining the risk of developing high-grade PCa, whereas elevated PHI levels suggest that the tumor is aggressive. Some evidence also supports the effectiveness of miRNAs as biomarkers for distinguishing PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia and for assessing the aggressiveness of the disease. A number of miRNAs that possibly act as tumor inhibitors or oncogenes are impaired in PCa. These new biomarkers are comprehensively reviewed in the present study in terms of their potential use in diagnosing and treating PCa.Copyright © 2020 Wei Jin et al.
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