Hepatitis A (HA) is an acute human infectious disease caused by a positive single-stranded RNA virus (HAV). It is mainly acquired through the fecal-oral route and is primarily spread by contact between people and exposure to contaminated water and food. Recently, large outbreaks of HA have been reported by low and moderate endemicity countries, emphasizing its importance in public health and the need for rapid and large-scale diagnostic tests to support public health decisions on HA. This work proposes a new tool for HAV diagnosis based on the association of surface plasmonic resonance with major capsid protein VP1 (SPR-HAVP1 assay), detecting IgM antibodies for HAV in human serum samples. Structural analyses of VP1 B-lymphocyte epitopes showed continuous and discontinuous epitopes. The discontinuous epitopes were identified in the N-terminal region of the VP1 protein. Both epitope types in the VP1 protein were shown by the reactivity of VP1 in native and denaturing conditions to IgM anti-HAV, which was favorable to tests of VP1 in the SPR assays. SPR-HAVP1 assays showed good performance in the detection of IgM polyclonal antibody anti-HAV. These assays were performed using a COOH5 sensor chip functionalized with VP1 protein. The sensorgram record showed a significant difference between positive and negative serum samples, which was confirmed by analysis of variation of initial and final dissociation values through time (ΔRUd/t). The data gathered here are unequivocal evidence that the SPR-HAVP1 strategy can be applied to detect IgM antibodies in human serum positive to the HAV. This is a new tool to be explored to diagnose human HAV infections.