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Detection of First-Line Drug Resistance Mutations and Drug-Protein Interaction Dynamics from Tuberculosis Patients in South India.

Detection of First-Line Drug Resistance Mutations and Drug-Protein Interaction Dynamics from Tuberculosis Patients in South India.
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Nachappa SA, Neelambike SM, Amruthavalli C, Ramachandra NB,


Nachappa SA, Neelambike SM, Amruthavalli C, Ramachandra NB, (click to view)

Nachappa SA, Neelambike SM, Amruthavalli C, Ramachandra NB,

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Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 2017 08 16() doi 10.1089/mdr.2017.0048

Abstract

Diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis predominantly relies on culture-based drug susceptibility testing, which take weeks to produce a result and a more time-efficient alternative method is multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Also, understanding the role of mutations in causing resistance helps better drug designing.

AIMS
To evaluate the ability of MAS-PCR in the detection of drug resistance and to understand the mechanism of interaction of drugs with mutant proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

METHODS
Detection of drug-resistant mutations using MAS-PCR and validation through DNA sequencing. MAS-PCR targeted five loci on three genes, katG 315 and inhA -15 for the drug isoniazid (INH), and rpoB 516, 526, and 531 for rifampicin (RIF). Furthermore, the sequence data were analyzed to study the effect on interaction of the anti-TB drug molecule with the target protein using in silico docking.

RESULTS
We identified drug-resistant mutations in 8 out of 114 isolates with 2 of them as multidrug-resistant TB using MAS-PCR. DNA sequencing confirmed only six of these, recording a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 99.3% for MAS-PCR. Molecular docking showed estimated free energy of binding (ΔG) being higher for RIF binding with RpoB S531L mutant. Codon 315 in KatG does not directly interact with INH but blocks the drug access to active site.

CONCLUSIONS
We propose DNA sequencing-based drug resistance detection for TB, which is more accurate than MAS-PCR. Understanding the action of resistant mutations in disrupting the normal drug-protein interaction aids in designing effective drug alternatives.

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