AIDS research and human retroviruses 2017 05 02() doi 10.1089/AID.2017.0017
Five patients were urine positive for HIV-1 RNA (Table 1). High concentration of HIV-1 RNA in fresh urine samples was found in three patients (871,000/150,500/100,200 copies) whereas low concentration was detected in two (472.2/214.4 copies). Viral load was 224,477164,223 [meanSD] copies in fresh urine samples and 11,5606,695 in paired blood samples (p=0.147). There was no statistically significant correlation of urine HIV-1 load with blood HIV-1 viral load, CD4+ cell count or kidney function. Among the three patients who had high concentration of urine HIV-1 RNA, two were dead within one month of enrollment before initiation of an antiretroviral treatment. In contrast, none of the eleven urine negative patients died within a period of 12-month clinical observation. Viral load was lower than 100 copies in all the old urine samples stored in fridge for one month, indicating a short-life span of urine HIV-1 virus.